In contrast, the problems treated here are those of data independence - the independence of application programs and terminal activities from growth in data types and changes in data representation Ñ and certain kinds of data inconsistency which are expected to become troublesome even in nondeductive systems.
The relational view (or model) of data described in Section 1 appears to be superior in several respects to the graph or network model [3, 4] presently in vogue for non-inferential systems. It provides a means of describing data with its natural structure only -- that is, without superimposing any additional structure for machine representation poses. Accordingly, it provides a basis for a high level data language which will yield maximal independence between programs on the one hand and machine representation and organization of data on the other.
A further advantage of the relational view is that it forms a sound basis for treating derivability, redundancy, and consistency of relations - these are discussed in Section 2. The network model, on the other hand, has spawned a number of confusions, not the least of which is mistaking the derivation of connections for the derivation of relations (see remarks in Section 2 on the "connection trap" ).
Finally, the relational view permits a clearer evaluation of the scope and logical limitations of present formatted data systems, and also the relative merits (from a logical standpoint) of competing representations of data within a single system. Examples of this clearer perspective are cited in various parts of this paper. Implementations of systems to support the relational model are not discussed.